Squamous cell skin cancer
Squamous-cell skin cancer, also known as cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma (cSCC), is one of the main types of skin cancer along with basal cell cancer, and melanoma. It usually presents as a hard lump with a scaly top but can also form an ulcer. Onset is often over months. Squamous-cell skin cancer is more likely to spread to distant areas than basal cell cancer.
The greatest risk factor is high total exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the Sun. Other risks include prior scars, chronic wounds, actinic keratosis, lighter skin, Bowen’s disease, arsenic exposure, radiation therapy, poor immune system function, previous basal cell carcinoma, and HPV infection. Risk from UV radiation is related to total exposure, rather than early exposure. Tanning beds are becoming another common source of ultraviolet radiation. It begins from squamous cells found within the skin. Diagnosis is often based on skin examination and confirmed by tissue biopsy.
Decreasing exposure to ultraviolet radiation and the use of sunscreen appear to be effective methods of preventing squamous-cell skin cancer. Treatment is typically by surgical removal. This can be by simple excision if the cancer is small otherwise Mohs surgery is generally recommended. Other options may include application of cold and radiation therapy. In the cases in which distant spread has occurred chemotherapy or biologic therapy may be used.
As of 2015, about 2.2 million people have cSCC at any given time. It makes up about 20% of all skin cancer cases. About 12% of males and 7% of females in the United States developed cSCC at some point in time. While prognosis is usually good, if distant spread occurs five-year survival is ~34%. In 2015 it resulted in about 51,900 deaths globally. The usual age at diagnosis is around 66. Following the successful treatment of one case of cSCC people are at high risk of developing further cases.
Both the city and the county were named for David Gouverneur Burnet, the first (provisional) president of the Republic of Texas. He also served as Vice President during the administration of Mirabeau B. Lamar.
Burnet is located one mile west of the divide between the Brazos and Colorado River watersheds near the center of Burnet County. It is 54 miles (87 km) northwest of the state capital, Austin – roughly a 1- to 1½-hour drive via U.S. Highway 183 and State Highway 29. It is 36 miles (58 km) west of Georgetown and Interstate Highway 35 via State Highway 29, and 100 miles (160 km) north of San Antonio on U.S. Highway 281.
According to the United States Census Bureau, Burnet has a total area of 10.2 square miles (26.3 km2), of which 10.1 square miles (26.2 km2) is land and 0.04 square miles (0.1 km2), or 0.32%, is water.