A mattress is a large, rectangular pad for supporting the reclining body, designed to be used as a bed or on a bed frame, as part of a bed. Mattresses may consist of a quilted or similarly fastened case, usually of heavy cloth, that contains materials such as hair, straw, cotton, foam rubber, or a framework of metal springs. Mattresses may also be filled with air or water.
Mattresses are usually placed on top of a bed base which may be solid, as in the case of a platform bed, or elastic, such as an upholstered wood and wire box spring or a slatted foundation. Popular in Europe, a divan incorporates both mattress and foundation in a single upholstered, footed unit. Divans have at least one innerspring layer as well as cushioning materials. They may be supplied with a secondary mattress and/or a removable “topper.” Mattresses may also be filled with air or water, or a variety of natural fibers, such as in futons. Kapok is a common mattress material in Southeast Asia, and coir in South Asia.
The word mattress derives from the Arabic مَطْرَحٌ (maṭraḥ) which means “something thrown down” or “place where something is thrown down” and hence “mat, cushion”. During the Crusades Europeans adopted the Arabic method of sleeping on cushions on the floor, and the word materas eventually descended into Middle English through the Romance languages. The oldest known mattress dates to around 77,000 years ago.
Early mattresses contained a variety of natural materials including straw, feathers or horse hair. In the first half of the 20th century, a typical mattress sold in North America had an innerspring core and cotton batting or fiberfill. Modern mattresses usually contain either an inner spring core or materials such as latex, viscoelastic or other flexible polyurethane foams. Other fill components include insulator pads over the coils that prevent the bed’s upholstery layers from cupping down into the innerspring, as well as polyester fiberfill in the bed’s top upholstery layers. In 1899 James Marshall introduced the first individually wrapped pocketed spring coil mattress now commonly known as Marshall coils.
In North America the typical mattress sold today is an innerspring; however there is increasing interest in all-foam beds and so-called hybrid beds, which include both an innerspring and high-end foams such as visco-elastic or latex in the comfort layers. In Europe, polyurethane foam cores and latex cores have long been popular and make up a much larger proportion of the mattresses sold.
A conventional mattress consists of two primary sections – a core or “support layer” and the upholstery or “comfort layer” – wrapped in a thick fabric called the ticking.
Upholstery layers cover the mattress and provide cushioning and comfort. The upholstery layer consists of three parts: the insulator, the middle upholstery, and the quilt.
Mattresses are typically made to conform to bed sizing standards that vary by market.
Both the city and the county were named for David Gouverneur Burnet, the first (provisional) president of the Republic of Texas. He also served as Vice President during the administration of Mirabeau B. Lamar.
Burnet is located one mile west of the divide between the Brazos and Colorado River watersheds near the center of Burnet County. It is 54 miles (87 km) northwest of the state capital, Austin – roughly a 1- to 1½-hour drive via U.S. Highway 183 and State Highway 29. It is 36 miles (58 km) west of Georgetown and Interstate Highway 35 via State Highway 29, and 100 miles (160 km) north of San Antonio on U.S. Highway 281.
According to the United States Census Bureau, Burnet has a total area of 10.2 square miles (26.3 km2), of which 10.1 square miles (26.2 km2) is land and 0.04 square miles (0.1 km2), or 0.32%, is water.